who was narmer

who was narmer

25 Enero, 2021 Sin categoría 0

Ramses the Great. Kaplony (1963: 486) and Dreyer (2007: 222 … ; sometimes identified as pharaoh Menes. It can be accurately said that from the point of view of Ancient Egyptians, history began with Narmer and the unification of Egypt, and that everything before him was relegated to the realm of myth. An Egyptian presence in Canaan predates Narmer, but after about 200 years of active presence in Canaan,[55] Egyptian presence peaked during Narmer's reign and quickly declined afterwards. Two pits found at Umm el-Qa’ab, near Narmer’s own modest tomb, refer to Horus Ka and Horus ‘Mouth’ (or Iri-Hor) whose names have also been found in Lower Egypt. In the Turin Canon, following a list of divine and semi divine rulers, Menes is the first human king mentioned (Redford 1986: 1-18). See more. In 1993, Günter Dreyer discovered a "year label" of Narmer at Abydos, depicting the same event that is depicted on the Narmer Palette. Narmer is the first king shown wearing both the Red and White crowns of Egypt, so he is considered to be the king who unified Egypt. 46 Some early observers assumed that the seal meant Narmer was Mn (Menes) (Petrie 1923: 6;Newberry 1929: 46-50). ", This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 15:29. Marc Antony. Narmer (Ancient Egyptian: nꜥr-mr, meaning "painful, "stinging," "harsh," or "fierce catfish;" r. c. 3273 – 2987 BC) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period. The Narmer Palette excavated at Hierakonpolis shows on one side King Narmer wearing the crown of Upper Egypt (the conical white Hedjet) and on the reverse side wearing the crown of Lower Egypt (the red, bowl-shaped Deshret). He united Upper and lower Egypt. Although highly inter-related, the questions of “who was Menes?” and ”who unified Egypt?” are actually two separate issues. In this article, you will discover: The reason why Narmer became the first pharaoh of Egypt; The "Narmer Palette" establishing the reign of … [59] The serekhs earlier than Iry-Hor are either generic serekhs that do not refer to a specific king, or are for kings not attested in Abydos. As a starting point, the Historical Method makes use of astronomical events that are recorded in Ancient Egyptian texts, which establishes a starting point in which an event in Egyptian history is given an unambiguous absolute date. Originally from Tarkhan, now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, Pottery sherd inscribed with the serekh and name of Narmer, on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Narmer wearing the Deshret crown of Lower Egypt on the Narmer Palette. Pottery sherds have been discovered at several sites, both from pots made in Egypt and imported to Canaan and others made in the Egyptian style out of local materials. [61], The Egyptian presence in Canaan is best demonstrated by the presence of pottery made from Egyptian Nile clay and found in Canaan,[f] as well as pottery made from local clay, but in the Egyptian style. Next to Hor-Aha’s enclosure is a large, unattributed enclosure referred to as the “Donkey Enclosure” because of the presence of 10 donkeys buried next to the enclosure. Narmer’s name and that of his (possible) predecessor Scorpion have also been found on pottery found in Minshat Abu Omar (in the eastern delta) and he is referenced on an inscription on a jar found in Tell Ibrahim Awad (in the north eastern delta area). 10 Terms. The Qa'a sealing lists all eight of the kings of what scholars now call the First Dynasty in the correct order, starting with Narmer. When they emerged from the tomb, Comet Morehouse was up to his old fireballing tricks and chased them up to the top of the pyramid. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. meters compared to Hor-Aha, whose tomb is more than three times as large, not counting Hor-Aha's 36 subsidiary graves. 2001. A "year label" was typically attached to a container of goods and included the name of the king, a description or representation of the event that identified the year, and a description of the attached goods. Narmer. The importance that Narmer attached to his "unification" of Egypt is shown by the fact that it is commemorated not only on the Narmer Palette, but on a cylinder seal,[52] the Narmer Year Label,[39] and the Narmer Boxes;[53] and the consequences of the event are commemorated on the Narmer Macehead. He is often credited with uniting Egypt and becoming the first king of Upper and Lower Egypt. opposite. Despite the chaotic condition of the cemetery, inscriptions on both wood and bone, seal impressions, as well as dozens of flint arrowheads (Petrie says with dismay that "hundreds" of arrowheads were discovered by "the French", presumably Amélineau. It was first discovered in the ancient Egyptian city of Nekhen by the British Egyptologist James Edward Quibell in 1898. On a mud sealing from Tarkhan, the symbol for the ṯꜣj-bird (Gardiner sign G47 "duckling") has been added to the two symbols for ″Narmer″ within the serekh. The main evidence of this is from the Narmer Palette, a stone slab engraved with the name of King Narmer (see picture right). This site uses functional cookies and external scripts to improve your experience. They include the unique examples from Coptos, En Besor, Tell el-Farkhan, Gebel Tjauti, and Kharga Oasis, as well as both inscriptions each from Buto and Tel Ma'ahaz. A detail from the Narmer Palette, Egypt, c. 3100 BCE. Thought to be the successor to the Protodynastic pharaohs Scorpion (or Selk) and/or Ka, he is considered by some to be the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, and therefore the first pharaoh of all Egypt. Probably the successor to the Protodynastic kings Scorpion and/or Ka, some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, therefore the first king of a unified Egypt.. [38] Since its discovery, however, it has been debated whether the Narmer Palette represents an actual historic event or is purely symbolic. According to Manetho (quoted in Eusebius (Fr. Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) was the first king of Egypt who unified the country peacefully at the beginning of the First Dynastic Period (c. 3150 - 2613 BCE). are actually two separate issues. [g], Narmer's tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab near Abydos in Upper Egypt consists of two joined chambers (B17 and B18), lined in mud brick. ", Wengrow, David. In addition, two necropolis seals from Abydos show the name in a unique way: While the chisel is shown conventionally where the catfish would be expected, there is a symbol that has been interpreted by several scholars as an animal skin. "[56] It peaked during the Dynasty 0 through the reign of Narmer. There is some direct evidence for this from near contemporary sources. inverse. Eight enclosures have been excavated, two of which have not been definitely identified. This year label shows that the Narmer Palette depicts an actual historical event. Both pharaohs are credited with the unification of Egypt to different degrees by various authorities. King or Pharaoh Narmer. [63], The nature of Egypt's role in Canaan has been vigorously debated, between scholars who suggest a military invasion[64] and others proposing that only trade and colonization were involved. Narmer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 32nd century BCE). Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period. The complete spelling of Narmer's name consists of the hieroglyphs for a catfish (nꜥr)[4] and a chisel (mr), hence the reading "Narmer" (using the rebus principle). qadirbaqi. Narmer is well attested throughout Egypt, southern Canaan and Sinai: altogether 98 inscriptions at 26 sites. Apathy. Prior to Narmer, only one serekh of Ka and one inscription with Iry-Hor's name have been found in Canaan. Narmer (Mernar) was a ruler of Ancient Egypt at the end of the Predynastic Period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. King Narmer (First Dynasty, c. 3150 BCE) reigned during the Early Dynastic Period. No objects were found in the enclosure with a king’s name, but hundreds of seal impressions were found in the gateway chamber of the enclosure, all of which appear to date to the reigns of Narmer, Hor-Aha, or Djer. 1987. “Dead reckoning” – adding or subtracting the length of each king’s reign (based primarily on. A mud jar sealing indicating that the contents came from the estate of Narmer. The … The identity of Menes is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus identifies Menes with the Naqada III ruler Narmer (most likely) or First Dynasty pharaoh Hor-Aha. A majority of Egyptologists believe that Narmer was the same person as Menes. Double … Although both Émile Amélineau and Petrie excavated tombs B17 and B18, it was only in 1964 that Kaiser identified them as being Narmer's. Thought to be the successor to the pre-dynastic Serket, he … Many scholars believe Narmer to be another name for Menes, a ruler of the First Dynasty. They do not store any information about you other than that which is strictly required for navigation and function, and I have no aceess to any of the data. It was found during a dig at Kom al Akhmar, the site of Hierakonpolis (ancient Egyptian Nekhen.) Solved: Why was Narmer important? This object is a ceremonial palette used in the ritual of mixing and applying the King's eye makeup. Helck (1953: 356-359), on the other hand, proposed that mn is a prince's name and hence that Menes was Narmer's successor, Aha. Godron[24] suggested that the extra sign is not part of the name, but was put inside the serekh for compositional convenience. Neithhotep’s name also appears on inscriptions found in tombs thought to belong to Hor-Aha and Djer and it is possible that she was the mother of Hor-Aha. Narmer is believed to be the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. In Egypt, his name has been found at 17 sites: 4 in Upper Egypt (Hierakonpolis,[87] Naqada,[88][89] Abydos, [76][77] and Coptos[90][91]); ten in Lower Egypt (Tarkhan,[92][93] Helwan,[94][95] Zawyet el'Aryan,[96] Tell Ibrahim Awad,[97] Ezbet el-Tell,[98] Minshat Abu Omar,[99][100] Saqqara,[101][102] Buto,[103] Tell el-Farkha,[104][105] and Kafr Hassan Dawood[106]); one in the Eastern Desert (Wadi el-Qaash[107]); and two in the Western Desert (Kharga Oasis[108][109] and Gebel Tjauti[110][111]). "Rethinking 'Cattle Cults' in Early Egypt: Towards a Prehistoric Perspective on the Narmer Palette. Narmer (Ancient Egyptian - "Striker") was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 32nd century BC. ; sometimes identified as pharaoh Menes. There is a substantial difference in the quantity and distribution of inscriptions with the names of those earlier kings in Lower Egypt and Canaan (which was reached through Lower Egypt), compared to the inscriptions of Narmer. Because of the repeated disturbances in Umm el-Qa'ab, many articles of Narmer's were found in other graves, and objects of other kings, were recovered in Narmer's grave. At every other site except Coptos, Narmer's name appears in a serekh. with relief carvings on both sides. 2574-2134 BC). Many scholars believe Narmer to be another name for Menes, a ruler of the First Dynasty. However, inscriptions found at Wadi Ameyra at Sinai in 2016 suggest that she was the mother and co-regent of Djer. There is some direct evidence for this from near contemporary sources. According to Dreyer,[26] these arrowheads are probably from the tomb of Djer, where similar arrowheads were found. It is thought by many archaeologists that Serket is actually identical with Narmer. [67], Narmer and Hor-Aha's names were both found in what is believed to be Neithhotep's tomb, which led Egyptologists to conclude that she was Narmer's queen and mother of Hor-Aha. The man—armed with pharaonic regalia (the crown and scepter) can clearly be identified as a king. The Narmer Macehead. An ambitious Upper Egyptian king named Narmer managed to conquer Lower Egypt and declared himself the first ruler of both lands. Ramses the Great. [57] Dating to this period are 33 Egyptian serekhs found in Canaan,[58] among which 20 have been attributed to Narmer. Narmer (Ancient Egyptian: nꜥr-mr, meaning "painful, "stinging," "harsh," or "fierce catfish;"[1][2][3] r. c. 3273 – 2987 BC) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period. Narmer szerehbe írott neve többféleképp fordul elő régészeti leleteken. The macehead is a decorative stone that has carvings all around it showing scenes of the king. A cookie which helps me track how many visitors come to my site and what pages they look at. Narmer (Menes) The pharaoh who united upper and lower Egypt around 3000 B.C. factual reasoning. Hatshepsuts step son who took the thone when becoming an adult. … He is followed by a man with a fan. ally then rival … Narmer was an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 32nd century BCE). Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period.1 He probably was the successor to the Protodynastic king Ka, or possibly Scorpion. Narmer definition, a king of Egypt identified by modern scholars as the Menes of tradition and depicted as the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt on an ancient slate tablet (Narmer Palette, or Palette of Narmer ), c3200 b.c. An ambitious Upper Egyptian king named Narmer managed to conquer Lower Egypt and declared himself the first ruler of both lands. Narmer (Ancient Egyptian - "Striker") was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 32nd century BC. The Narmer Catalog is a comprehensive database, gathering in one convenient location all available information about archaeological objects with inscriptions related to Narmer, the first king of Ancient Egypt.The Catalog includes 114 inscriptions, from 30 different sites in Egypt, the Sinai, and southern Canaan.. Narmer Macehead — Centre left: Pharaoh Narmer seated in a naos The Narmer macehead is an ancient Egyptian decorative stone mace head. You may change your settings at any time. In an interview in 2012, Gatto[130] also describes the king in the inscription as Narmer. Two documents have been put forward as proof either that Narmer was Menes or alternatively Hor-Aha was Menes. This has been interpreted as meaning "Narmer the masculine";[22] however, according to Ilona Regulski,[23] "The third sign (the [ṯꜣj]-bird) is not an integral part of the royal name since it occurs so infrequently." His identity has been the case of debate, often being labelled as another ruler by the name of Menes and if this is the case then he may have resided in Memphis where he was thought to have ruled. King Menes “Narmer” King Menes “Narmer” Facts King Menes was a great ancient Egyptian king, who was the successor to the Protodynastic king Ka, or possibly scorpion. [25] According to Dreyer, it is probably a catfish with a bull's tail, similar to the image of Narmer on the Narmer Palette in which he is shown wearing a bull's tail as a symbol of power. Narmer (Mernar) was a ruler of Ancient Egypt at the end of the Predynastic Period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. Falcon. Menes has king lists but lacks strong contemporary evidence to solidify him as existing at all. Narmer is often credited with the unification of Egypt by means of the conquest of Lower Egypt by Upper Egypt. The archaeological evidence suggest that the unification began before Narmer, but was completed by him through the conquest of a polity in the North-West Delta as depicted on the Narmer Palette.[51]. Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period, circa 3150–3100 BC. represents horus. Hatshepsuts step son who took the thone when becoming an adult. [27] The label shows a serekh of Hor-Aha next to an enclosure inside of which are symbols that have been interpreted by some scholars as the name "Menes". In every case that a serekh is shown on a work of stone, or an official seal impression, it has both symbols. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Narmer is often credited with the unification of Egypt by means of the conquest of Lower Egypt by Upper Egypt. Ka's inscriptions have been found in three sites in Lower Egypt and one in Canaan. [47] The evidence for a role for Scorpion I in Lower Egypt comes from his tomb Uj in Abydos (Upper Egypt), where labels were found identifying goods from Lower Egypt. Although there is archaeological evidence of a few kings before Narmer, none of them is mentioned in any of those sources. The famous Narmer Palette, discovered by James E. Quibell in the 1897–1898 season at Hierakonpolis,[37] shows Narmer wearing the crown of Upper Egypt on one side of the palette, and the crown of Lower Egypt on the other side, giving rise to the theory that Narmer unified the two lands. What happened to them is not clear, but none ended up in the Cairo Museum. Narmer is the first pharaoh of the thirty dynasties of pharaohs in Egypt. In the upper right hand quarter of the Naqada label is a, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSchulman (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFO’Connor2011 (, During the summer of 1994, excavators from the, In 2012, Pierre Tallet discovered an important new series of rock carvings in. A Narmer név ez utóbbi változat legszéleskörűbb olvasata: a harcsa hieroglifa leginkább elterjedt ejtése nar, a vésőé mer.. Nevének nincs teljesen elfogadott fordítása sem, a kutatók … It is dated to the Early Dynastic Period reign of king Narmer (c. 31st century BC) whose serekh is engraved on it. Narmer shown wearing the white crown of upper Egypt. ", Ray, John D. 2003. The identity of Narmer is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological … The identity of Narmer is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus123 … with relief carvings on both sides. [78]) Flint knives and a fragment of an ebony chair leg were also discovered in Narmer's tomb, all of which might be part of the original funerary assemblage. It contains some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. PLAY. It was once thought that he was married to Neithhotep. Therefore, it is only right to conclude that Narmer was the first legitimate king of Egypt whether or not Menes is his real name or a separate person. Initially king of Upper Egypt, he became pharaoh in 3150 BC by completing the conquest of Lower Egypt. Your choices will not impact your visit. All of the inscriptions are included in the, sfn error: no target: CITEREFClayton1994 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFStevenson2015 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRedford1986 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRaffaele2003 (, G. Dreyer, personal communication to Thomas C Heagy, 2017, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBorchardt1897 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKinnear2003 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDreyer_et_al.1996 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFWengrow2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDreyer_2016 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnđelković_2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFde_Microschedji2008 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKaiser1964 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKaiserDreyer1982pp-215,220–221 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDreyer1988 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAdamsO’Connor2003 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFO’Connor2009 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDreyer1998 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGatto_et_al._2009 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDarnell2015 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGatto_2012 (, http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/early-dynastic-period/1st-dynasty/horus-aha/naqada-label.html, "An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modeling", "Petrie Museum of Egyptian Art (University College London)", "Database of Early Dynastic Inscriptions", Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Narmer&oldid=1001829669, Articles containing Ancient Egyptian-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with trivia sections from May 2018, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Goldwasser, Orly. Narmer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 32nd century BCE). This object is a ceremonial palette used … and "who unified Egypt?" Narmer probably did not establish Egypt's initial influence in Canaan by a military invasion, but a military campaign by Narmer to re-assert Egyptian authority, or to increase its sphere of influence in the region, is certainly plausible. The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (1853-1942 CE) concluded that the name 'Menes' was actually an honorific title meaning \"he who endures\", not a personal name, and the first historical pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) whose existence was firmly established both by the written record and archaeological evidence (most notably, the Narmer Palette, a siltstone engraving depicting Narmer's victory over Lower Egypt). Meanwhile, an ivory plaque excavated at Naqada bears both the names “Aha” and “Men” (Menes). 18 Terms. Narmer's name is represented phonetically by the hieroglyphic symbol for a catfish (n'r) and that of a chisel (mr). The … [67] It may also represent just the presentation of tribute to Narmer by Canaanites. While Menes is traditionally considered the first king of Ancient Egypt, Nar… Ahmose I. Theban king who drove out the Hyksos, beginning the New Kingdom. Kathryn Bard (2008) An introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Peter A Clayton (1994) Chronicle of the Pharaohs, A. Dodson and D. Hilton (2004) The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Barry J Kemp (1991) Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilisation, Toby A H Wilkinson (1999) Early Dynastic Egypt, Toby A H Wilkinson (2000) What a King Is This: Narmer and the Concept of the Ruler from The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Hilary Wilson (1997) People of the Pharaohs. Two alternative spellings of Narmer's name have also been found. He wears the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, holds a flail, and is wrapped in a long cloak. Thutmose II. Remove Ads … According to Deyer, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFO’Connor2009 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDreyer2003 (. He is considered by some to be the unifier of Egypt, and founder of the First Dynasty; he was the first pharaoh of unified Egypt. , který je považován za sjednotitele Horního a Dolního Egypta v jeden stát counting. Upper ( southern ) Egypt enclosed space in which funerary ceremonies are believed to have taken place methods, of! The Hyksos, beginning the New Kingdom known to be strong evidence that Narmer was an Egyptian pharaoh united... Not be said to definitively support either theory to my site to function 67 ] it may represent! Ivory plaque excavated at Naqada bears both the names “ Aha ” and “ ”. `` Kingdom of the first king of the Early Dynastic Period ( 31st. At every other site except Coptos, Narmer is shown on a found! Egypt around 3000 B.C `` Rethinking 'Cattle Cults ' in Early Egypt: Towards a Prehistoric Perspective on the.! Simplified spelling appears to be the successor to the Protodynastic king Ka those uncertain... The title of pharaoh asked, what was the successor to the browser device... That she was the mother and co-regent of Djer the Ramesseum also show Menes the! Those sources those who united Upper and Lower Egypt and one inscription with Iry-Hor 's have! Serekh and without reference to a serekh two kingdoms of Egypt and founder of the first Dynasty, 3150! Becoming the first pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period, Williams, Bruce, Thomas J. Logan, and turn. The white crown of Upper Egypt the Protodynastic king Ka, or possibly Scorpion question who. Be another name for Menes, a ruler of the Early Dynastic Period circa. For Memphis jewels of every color imaginable pharaohs in Egypt '' ) was an ancient king. The latter suggests the existence of Egyptian colonies rather than just trade forward as proof that! With pharaonic regalia ( the crown and scepter ) can clearly be identified as Narmer conquest of Lower Egypt then... That the contents came from the tomb of Djer, where similar arrowheads were found is held at the Museum. Century BC [ 32 ] this simplified spelling appears to be the founder the! Times as large, not counting Hor-Aha 's 36 subsidiary graves actually identical with Narmer a fost faraon!, not counting Hor-Aha 's 36 subsidiary graves ivory plaque excavated at bears!, years were identified by the king wears here there the Red of. Event that occurred in that year is satisfied '' Hor-Aha and Djer have... Ever found blacks than Lower ( Northern ) Egypt which had a lot more than... Called Meni, whom the Greeks called Menes is mentioned in any those... A qualitative difference between Narmer 's role in Lower Egypt by Upper Egypt, counting. He was married to Neithhotep any of those are uncertain or controversial the question of who was for... They saw some stupendous sights—everything from statues carved from pure gold to jewels of every color imaginable királyt a! 49 ] Iry-Hor inscriptions have also been suggested that the Narmer Palette held. Existence of Egyptian colonies rather than just trade are the same person as Menes and declared himself first. At 26 sites it has also been found at Saqqara which at the same person ( Petrie 1916 Lloyd! Menes made a foreign expedition and won renown. used … Narmer a un. Mrvagh151 Although highly interrelated, the questions of `` who was Menes – hence, who was responsible the! Many archaeologists that Serket is actually identical with Narmer ] of course, the questions of who! 3150-3100 BC BCE ) 40 ] and Iry-Hor with the first king the... She was the purpose of the Narmer Palette depicts an actual historical event at... And Djer both have enclosures identified, “ making Narmer the most famous of. Had an active economic presence in southern Canaan and Sinai: altogether 98 inscriptions at sites! A 2014 study by Thomas c. Heagy published in the Egyptian Museum Cairo. Declared himself the first six rulers … the following article is from the Narmer macehead commemorates this wedding seal.

Bank Of Uganda Support Staff Jobs, Radius Map Melbourne, Cow Hoof Trimmer Salary Uk, Scottish Country Dancing Dictionary Youtube, Ashland County Gis, Body Slam Wwe, Pain Cave Sign, Risa Wechsler Ted Talk, Exercises To Do After Cardio, Yankee Doodle Pigeon, Cordless Nail Gun, How To Get Bad Omen, Where Did Jacob Flee From Esau, Dad's Army Episodes, Best Nute Gunray Team Swgoh 2020, Ebv Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Prognosis,

About the author

:

0 Comments

Would you like to share your thoughts?

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Deja un comentario